What is Mutual Fund?

A mutual fund is a collection of stocks, bonds, or other securities owned by a group of investors and managed by a professional investment company. For an individual investor to have a diversified portfolio is difficult. But you can approach to mutual fund advisor and can invest into shares. Mutual funds have become very popular since they make individual investors invest in equity and debt securities easy.

When investors invest a particular amount of mutual funds, he becomes the unit holder of corresponding units. In turn, mutual funds invest unit holders money in stocks, bonds or other securities that earn interest or dividend. This money is distributed to unit holders.

If the fund gets money by selling some stocks at a higher price the unit holders also are liable to get capital gains. A mutual fund is quite simply a collection of stocks, bonds, or other securities owned by a group of investors and managed by a professional investment company. Thus the mutual funds are not the depositing instrument that has the guarantee of getting a certain amount but it is like any other securities where the investor can have capital gains or loss.

Advantages of Mutual Fund

  • Professional Management – The primary advantage of funds (at least theoretically) is the professional management of your money. Investors purchase funds because they do not have the time or the expertise to manage their own portfolio. A mutual fund is a relatively inexpensive way for a small investor to get a full-time manager to make and monitor investment.
  • Diversification – By owning shares in a mutual fund instead of owning individual stocks or bonds, your risk is spread out. The idea behind diversification is to invest in a large number of assets so that a loss in any particular investment is minimized by gains in others. In other words, the more stocks and bonds you own, the less any one of them can hurt you (think about Enron). Large mutual funds typically own hundreds of different stocks in many different industries. It wouldn’t be possible for an investor to build this kind of a portfolio with a small amount of money.
  • Economies of Scale – Because a mutual fund buys and sells large amounts of securities at a time, its transaction costs are lower than you as an individual would pay.
  • Liquidity – Just like an individual stock, a mutual fund allows you to request that your shares be converted into cash at any time.
  • Simplicity – Buying a mutual fund is easy! Pretty well any bank has its own line of mutual funds, and the minimum investment is small. Most companies also have automatic purchase plans whereby as little as Rs 1000 can be invested on a monthly basis.

History of Mutual Fund

  • The origin of mutual fund industry in India is with the introduction of the concept of a mutual fund by UTI in the year 1963. Though the growth was slow, it accelerated from the year 1987 when non-UTI players entered the industry.
  • In the past decade, Indian mutual fund industry had seen a dramatic improvement, both quality wise as well as quantity wise. Before the monopoly of the market had seen an ending phase, the Assets Under Management (AUM) was Rs. 67bn. The private sector entry to the fund family rose the AUM to Rs. 470 bn in March 1993 and till April 2004, it reached the height of 1,540 bn.
  • Putting the AUM of the Indian Mutual Funds Industry into comparison, the total of it is less than the deposits of SBI alone, constitute less than 11% of the total deposits held by the Indian banking industry.
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Types of Mutual Funds

Based On Structure Of Mutual Fund

Open Ended Close Ended Interval Funds
Debt Orient Mutual Fund Hybrid Mutual Fund Equity Orient Mutual Fund
Liquid Fund Equity Orient Balanced fund Diversified Growth Fund
Gilt Fund Debt Orient Balance Fund Sectoral Fund
Floating Rate Fund Children Plan Tax Saving Fund
Short-Term Bond Fund
Income Fund
Monthly Income Fund